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What Are the Types of Watch Movements? A Comprehensive Guide

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watch movement

The evolution of watch movements has been a remarkable journey, marked by groundbreaking innovations and technological advancements. From the humble beginnings of mechanical movements to the cutting-edge precision of modern-day quartz and automatic movements, timepieces have witnessed a remarkable transformation. 

In this article, we will explore the fascinating history of watch movements, from their earliest forms to the most innovative designs of today.

What is a Watch Movement?

A watch movement, often referred to as a caliber, is the internal mechanism responsible for keeping time and driving the various functions of a watch. It comprises a complex system of gears, springs, and other components that work in harmony to ensure accurate timekeeping.

The main types of watch movements include manual quartz, and automatic. Mechanical movements rely on a series of mechanical gears and springs to power the watch. Quartz utilize the precise oscillations of a quartz crystal to maintain accuracy. Automatic movements combine mechanical and self-winding elements, relying on the natural motion of the wearer

to power the watch.

A Brief History of Watch Movements

The evolution of watch movements spans centuries, witnessing significant innovations and advancements in mechanical timekeeping. From the emergence of mechanical clocks to the introduction of self-winding wristwatches.

This timeline highlights the significant milestones in the development of watch movements, encompassing manual, quartz, and automatic movements.

15th Century: Early Mechanical Watches

  • The first mechanical watches emerged in the 15th century.
  • These watches were powered by a mainspring that needed to be manually wound using a key or a separate winding mechanism.

17th Century: Introduction of the Lever Escapement

  • English watchmaker Thomas Mudge invented the lever escapement in 1755 century, but it gained popularity in the 19th century.
  • The lever escapement enhanced the accuracy and reliability of mechanical watches by providing a more efficient method of transmitting energy.

17th Century: Invention of the Balance Spring

  • In 1795, Swiss watchmaker Abraham-Louis Breguet invented the balance spring, also known as the hairspring.
  • The balance spring improved the accuracy of mechanical watches by regulating the oscillations of the balance wheel.

19th Century: Manual Wind Watches

  • Manual wind watches became popular during the late 19th century.
  • These watches required the user to manually wind the mainspring using the crown to store energy and power the movement.

19th Century: Introduction of Automatic Watches

  • In 1924, Swiss watchmaker John Harwood patented the first practical automatic watch.
  • Automatic watches featured a rotor that moved with the motion of the wearer’s arm, winding the mainspring and eliminating the need for manual winding.

19th Century: Quartz Revolution

  • The quartz revolution began in 1967 with the introduction of the Seiko Astron, the first commercially available quartz wristwatch.
  • Quartz watches utilized a battery-powered quartz crystal oscillator to regulate timekeeping with unprecedented accuracy.

19th century: Quartz Dominance

  • Following the Seiko Astron, quartz technology rapidly gained popularity and dominated the watch market in 1969.
  • Quartz watches were highly accurate, affordable, and required minimal maintenance, leading to a decline in mechanical watch production.

Late 20th century: 

In the early 20th century, significant advancements were made in automatic watch movements, solidifying their position in watch-wearing culture.

21st century: 

As the 21st century began, quartz watches were perceived as affordable, while mechanical watches were associated with luxury. However, over time, a natural convergence emerged, blending the qualities of both into a harmonious balance.

Types of Movements & Key Components

Explore the different types of watch movements and their key components through this informative comparison table: Manual vs. Automatic vs. Quartz Movements.

FeatureManual WatchAutomatic WatchQuartz Watch
Power SourceManual winding of the crownWrist movement (rotor) and/or manual windingBattery-powered quartz crystal
AccuracyModerate to lowModerate to highVery high
MaintenanceRequires regular winding and occasional servicingRequires regular winding and occasional servicingMinimal maintenance required
Power ReserveTypically 24-48 hoursTypically 24-48 hoursBattery lasts several years
MovementMechanically-driven movementMechanically-driven movement with automatic winding mechanismElectronic movement
Price RangeWide range, from affordable to high-end luxuryWide range, from affordable to high-end luxuryWide range, from affordable to high-end luxury
StyleClassic and traditionalClassic and traditional, also available in modern designsAvailable in various styles and designs
Watch CollectingOften valued by collectors for their craftsmanshipValued by collectors, especially high-end automatic watchesLess commonly collected, but some models have collector value

Manual Movements

Rolex 6694 Manual Movements

Manual movements, also referred to as hand-wound movements, require the wearer to manually wind the watch by turning the crown. This action winds the mainspring, storing potential energy that gradually releases to power the watch’s functions.

Components of a Manual Watch Movement

Manual watches stand out for their traditional reliance on manual winding, setting them apart from automatic watches that self-wind and quartz watches that rely on batteries for power, offering a classic and hands-on timekeeping experience.

  • Crown: At the heart of the manual movement lies the crown, a wheel situated on the side of the watch. It serves a dual purpose: allowing the wearer to set the time and enabling manual winding by turning the crown. Winding the crown transfers kinetic energy to the mainspring, initiating the powering process.
  • Mainspring: The mainspring acts as the powerhouse of the manual movement. As the crown is wound, the kinetic energy is transmitted to a coil-shaped mainspring, which progressively tightens. This coiled spring stores the energy required to power the rest of the watch’s movement.
  • Gear Train: The stored energy from the mainspring is efficiently transmitted to the escapement through a series of small gears known as the gear train. This mechanism ensures that the energy is directed to the appropriate components in a regulated manner, contributing to the precise functioning of the watch.
  • Escapement: The escapement plays a crucial role in regulating the energy flow from the mainspring. Functioning as a brake, it receives the energy transmitted via the gear train and converts it into consistent, evenly distributed portions..
  • Balance Wheel: Considered the heart of the movement, the balance wheel receives energy from the escapement. It oscillates in a circular motion, typically beating between five and ten times per second.The balance wheel’s precise oscillations are fundamental to the reliable operation of the timepiece.
  • Dial Train: To translate the regulated energy from the balance wheel into movement, a series of gears known as the dial train comes into play. These gears transfer the energy from the balance wheel to the watch’s hands, allowing them to move steadily and accurately across the dial.
  • Jewels: Synthetic rubies, strategically positioned at points of high friction within the movement, act as bearings. For instance, they are placed in the centers of gears that are in constant motion. These jewels reduce metal-to-metal friction and wear, enhancing the performance and accuracy of the watch. 

Pros and Cons of Manual Watch Movement

Manual movements in watches offer a unique and traditional experience, requiring regular winding of the crown. We will explore the pros and cons of manual movements, highlighting their distinct characteristics and considerations for watch enthusiasts.

Pros of Manual Watch Movements:

  • Traditional craftsmanship: Manual watches showcase the artistry and craftsmanship of traditional watchmaking, with intricate mechanical movements that are often appreciated by watch enthusiasts.
  • Connection and engagement: Winding a manual watch creates a personal connection with the timepiece, providing a sense of engagement and involvement in the watch’s operation.
  • Vintage charm: Manual watches evoke a sense of nostalgia and vintage charm, appealing to those who appreciate classic timepieces.

Cons of Manual Watch Movements:

  • Daily winding requirement: Manual watches need to be wound manually on a daily basis to keep them running, which can be seen as a repetitive task and a potential inconvenience.
  • Potential accuracy variations: Manual watches may experience slight variations in timekeeping compared to quartz watches, which are known for their high precision.
  • Maintenance and servicing: Manual watches require regular servicing and maintenance to ensure optimal performance and longevity, adding to the overall cost of ownership.

Automatic Watch Movements

Rolex 214270 Automatic Watch Movements

Automatic movements, also known as self-winding movements, feature a rotor that rotates with the motion of the wearer’s wrist. This rotor winds the mainspring, storing energy and eliminating the need for manual winding in everyday use.

Components of a Automatic Watch Movement

Automatic watches uniquely self-wind through motion, setting them apart from manual watches and battery-powered quartz watches, combining tradition and convenience.

  • Crown: Similar to manual watches, the crown in automatic watches serves the purpose of time setting. Additionally, it can be turned to wind the watch initially or to provide additional power if the watch has stopped. While automatic watches can be manually wound, their primary source of energy comes from the natural movement of the wearer’s arm.
  • Mainspring: The mainspring in automatic movements is responsible for storing the energy required to power the watch. As the rotor rotates, it winds the mainspring, tightening a coil-shaped spring. The kinetic energy generated from the movement of the wrist is transformed into potential energy, gradually released to keep the watch running.
  • Gear Train: The gear train transmits the stored energy from the mainspring to the escapement. This intricate system comprises a series of small gears that efficiently transfer and regulate the energy flow, ensuring consistent power distribution throughout the movement.
  • Escapement: Acting as a crucial component, the escapement regulates the release of energy from the mainspring. It converts the consistent power from the gear train into equal, regular parts, allowing for accurate timekeeping. The escapement’s role is akin to a brake, controlling the energy flow within the movement.
  • Balance Wheel: The balance wheel, often considered the heart of the movement, receives energy from the escapement. It oscillates in a circular motion, typically beating between five and ten times per second. The precise oscillation of the balance wheel plays a critical role in maintaining the watch’s accuracy. 
  • Dial Train: The dial train consists of a series of gears that transmit the regulated energy from the balance wheel to the watch’s hands. This mechanism ensures that the energy from the oscillating balance wheel is accurately distributed, enabling the smooth and precise movement of the watch’s hour, minute, and second hands.
  • Jewels: Synthetic rubies are strategically placed at points of high friction within the automatic movement. These jewels act as bearings, reducing metal-to-metal friction and wear, which improves performance and accuracy. The choice of rubies is attributed to their ability to absorb heat efficiently and their exceptional hardness, ensuring durability and longevity.
  • Rotor: A key distinguishing feature of automatic movements is the rotor. This half-circle-shaped metal weight is connected to the movement and can freely swing in a 360-degree rotation as the wearer’s wrist moves. The rotor is equipped with gears that engage with the mainspring, winding it as it rotates. 

Pros and Cons of Automatic Watch Movements

Explore the benefits and drawbacks of automatic watch movements as we examine the pros and cons of these self-winding timepieces.

Pros of Automatic Watch Movements:

  • Convenient self-winding: Automatic movements eliminate the need for daily winding as they harness the motion of the wearer’s wrist to keep the watch powered.
  • Mechanical craftsmanship: Automatic watches showcase intricate mechanical movements, reflecting the artistry and craftsmanship of traditional watchmaking.
  • Environmental-friendly: Automatic watches do not require batteries, reducing the environmental impact of disposable batteries used in quartz watches.

Cons of Automatic Watch Movements:

  • Higher cost: Automatic watches tend to be more expensive compared to manual or quartz watches due to the complex mechanisms involved in their construction.
  • Maintenance and servicing: Automatic watches require periodic servicing and maintenance to ensure optimal performance and longevity.
  • Limited power reserve: If an automatic watch is not worn regularly, it may stop running as the power reserve depletes. To maintain power reserve when not wearing the watch, a watch winder can be used.

Quartz Watch Movements

Rolex Datejust 17013 Quartz Watch Movements

Quartz watches stand out for their unmatched accuracy due to the use of a quartz crystal oscillator, while being battery-powered for low maintenance and reliable timekeeping, setting them apart from automatic and manual watches

Components of a Quartz Watch Movement

  • Battery: The battery serves as the power source for quartz movements. Unlike mechanical movements, which rely on manual winding or natural arm movement, quartz watches depend on a battery for their energy. Typically, the battery in a quartz watch lasts between 12 and 24 months before needing replacement. 
  • Integrated Circuit: The integrated circuit, or IC, plays a vital role in the quartz movement. It acts as a conduit, carrying the electrical charge between the various components of the movement. The IC ensures the seamless flow of electricity and synchronizes the operation of other elements.
  • Quartz Crystal: The quartz crystal serves as the equivalent of a balance wheel in mechanical watches. An electric charge is continuously applied to the quartz crystal from the integrated circuit. The application of electricity causes the crystal to vibrate at a precise frequency. These vibrations are then used to regulate the timing of the watch. Additionally, the quartz crystal generates voltage when it vibrates, contributing to the accurate timekeeping of the watch.
  • Stepping Motor: The stepping motor is a crucial component in the quartz movement. It receives electrical impulses from the integrated circuit and converts them into mechanical power. The stepping motor drives the movement’s hands, allowing them to move in synchronized increments, creating the smooth, precise motion that quartz watches are known for.
  • Dial Train: Similar to mechanical movements, quartz movements also feature a dial train. The dial train consists of a series of gears that transmit the regulated energy from the stepping motor to the watch’s hands, enabling them to move in a synchronized manner. This mechanism ensures accurate timekeeping and the smooth motion of the watch’s hour, minute, and second hands.

Pros and Cons of Quartz Watch Movements

Discover the advantages and disadvantages of quartz watch movements as we delve into the pros and cons of these battery-powered timepieces.

Pros of Quartz Watch Movements:

  • Excellent accuracy: Quartz watches are known for their exceptional accuracy, often keeping time within seconds per month, surpassing the precision of automatic and manual watches.
  • Low maintenance: Quartz watches require minimal maintenance as they rely on batteries for power, eliminating the need for manual winding or self-winding mechanisms.
  • Cost-effective: Quartz watches tend to be more affordable compared to automatic watches, making them accessible to a wider range of consumers.

Cons of Quartz Watch Movements:

  • Battery dependency: Quartz watches rely on batteries for power, and the batteries need to be replaced periodically, which can be seen as an inconvenience.
  • Less mechanical craftsmanship: Quartz watches lack the intricate mechanical movements found in automatic and manual watches, which may be less appealing to those who appreciate traditional watchmaking artistry.
  • Limited power reserve: In the event of a battery failure, quartz watches will cease to function until the battery is replaced, unlike automatic watches that can continue running with manual winding.


1. How long should a power reserve be?

The recommended duration for a power reserve can vary depending on personal preferences and the specific watch. Generally, power reserves can range from a few hours to several days. Longer power reserves, typically exceeding 40 hours, are often favored for their convenience and practicality.

2. Which movement is best for a watch?

The selection of the optimal watch movement relies on individual preferences and specific requirements. Watch enthusiasts often favor mechanical movements due to their intricate craftsmanship and traditional charm. These movements, whether manual or automatic, are appreciated for their mechanical complexity and the artistry involved.

On the other hand, quartz movements provide unmatched accuracy, affordability, and low maintenance needs, making them a practical choice for individuals who prioritize precision and convenience

3. Is quartz or mechanical better?

The choice between quartz and mechanical movements depends on individual preferences and requirements. Quartz movements offer exceptional accuracy, durability, and convenience due to their battery-powered electronic mechanism. Mechanical movements, on the other hand, are renowned for their craftsmanship, intricate engineering, and traditional appeal. 

4. Is Rolex a quartz or mechanical?

Rolex primarily utilizes mechanical movements known for their precision and craftsmanship. They are known for their in-house caliber movements, developed and manufactured by Rolex. However, Rolex did produce a limited number of quartz watches in the past, such as the Oysterquartz models, but the majority of their watches feature mechanical movements.

Final Word

A watch winder is an indispensable accessory for watch collectors, offering a reliable and efficient solution to keep their automatic watches accurate, functional, and ready to wear. With its convenience and care, a watch winder enhances the overall experience of owning and preserving treasured timepieces.

Key Takeaways

  • Automatic Movements: Self-winding, powered by wearer’s arm motion, offering convenience and found in luxury watches.
  • Manual Movements: Hand-wound by crown, traditional and vintage charm, requiring regular winding and occasional servicing.
  • Quartz Movements: Battery-powered, highly accurate, affordable, and low maintenance.

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